Pathfinder Networks

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References to Pathfinder Networks

The following references provide examples of research and applications using Pathfinder Networks. Thanks to William Acton for providing many of these references. If you have a reference you would like to have added to the list, please email it to us at:

Acton, W., Johnson, P., & Goldsmith, T. (1994). Structural knowledge assessment: Comparison of referent structures.   Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 303-311.

Alexander, J. M., Noyes, C. R., MacBrayer, E. K., Schwanenflugel, P. J., & Fabricius, W. V. (1998). Concepts of mental activities and verbs in children of high and average verbal intelligence. Gifted Child Quarterly, 42 (1), 16-28.

Alda, F. (2016). La Biología en Enseñanzas Medias y primer curso de la Universidad: análisis de los currículos oficiales mediante ontologías semánticas. Doctoral Disseration, Universidad Zaragoza.

Alexandridis, K, Takemura, S., Webb, A., Lausche, B., Cukter, J., & Sato, T. (2018). Semantic knowledge network inference across a range of stakeholders and communities of practice. August 2018, Environmental Modelling and Software, 109,
DOI: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2018.08.026

Amith, M., Cohen, T., Cunningham, R, Savas, L. S., Smith, N., Cuccaro, P., Gabay, E., Boom, J., Schvaneveldt, R., & Tao, T. (2020). Mining HPV Vaccine Knowledge Structures of Young Adults From Reddit Using Distributional Semantics and Pathfinder Networks. Cancer Control, 27, 1-16.

Amith, M., Cunningham, R., Savas, L. S., Boom, J., Schvaneveldt, R., Tao, C., & Cohen, T. (2017). Using Pathfinder networks to discover alignment between expert and consumer conceptual knowledge from online vaccine content, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 74, 33-45, ISSN 1532-0464,

Anderson, M. P., McDonald, J. E., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1987). Empirical user modeling: Command usage and task analyses for deriving models of users.   Paper presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, New York, October.

Annaiyappa, P. K., Dearholt, D. W., Johansen, L. S., McDonald, J. E., Paap, K. R., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1991). Information retrieval comparing key word search to spreading activation: Application to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. Interactive poster presented at   CHI '91,   New Orleans, April/May.

Arias-Masa J., Contreras-Vas J.Á., Izquierdo V.H., Espada R.M., Arias-Abelaira J. (2020). Measurement of the Difference Between Students and Teachers’ Average Networks Using Associative Pathfinder Networks. In: Costa A., Reis L., Moreira A. (eds) Computer Supported Qualitative Research. WCQR 2019. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1068. Springer, Cham DOI:

Arleo, A., Kwon, O-H., & Ma, K-L. (2017). GraphRay: Distributed pathfinder network scaling. Conference: 2017 IEEE 7th Symposium on Large Data Analysis and Visualization (LDAV) DOI 10.1109/LDAV.2017.8231853

Aronoff, J. M., Gonnerman, L. M., Almor, A., Arunachalam, S., Kempler, D., & Andersen, E. S. (2006). Information content versus relational knowledge: Semantic deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease.   Neuropsychologia, 44 (1), 21-35.

Atas, S. (2019). Effect of Formative Feedback via Interactive Concept Maps on Informal Inferential Reasoning and Conceptual Understanding of ANOVA. PhD Thesis, University of Ottawa.

Azarello, Jo. (2007). Use of the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to measure students' structural knowledge of community health nursing. Nursing Education, 46(7), 313-318.

Barab, Sasha A., Fajen, Brett R., Kulikowich, Jonna M. & Young, Michael F. (1996). Assessing hypermedia navigation through Pathfinder: Prospects and limitations.   Journal of Educational Computing Research, 15(3), 185-205.

Barb, A. S., Clariana, R. B., & Shyu, C. R. (2013). Applications of PathFinder Network Scaling for Improving the Ranking of Satellite Images.   Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of,   6 (3), 1092-1099.

Barb, A.S. & Shyu, Chi-Ren (2012). Associative semantic rankings of satellite images using Pathfinder Network Scaling ensemble methods. IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Munich, July 22-27, pp 5289-5292.

Beier, M. E., Campbell, M., & Crook, A. E. (2010). Developing and demonstrating knowledge: Ability and non-ability determinants of learning and performance.   Intelligence,   38 (1), 179-186.

Benedek, M., Kenett, Y. N., Umdasch, K., Anaki, D., Faust, M., & Neubauer, A. C. (2017). How semantic memory structure and intelligence contribute to creative thought: A network science approach. Thinking & Reasoning, Published online 17 Jan 2017.

Benninghaus, J. C., Mühling, A., Kremer, K., & Sprenger, S. (2019). Complexity in Education for Sustainable Consumption—An Educational Data Mining Approach using Mysteries. Sustainability.

Bonebright, T. L., Miner, N. E., Goldsmith, T. E., & Caudell, T. P. (2005). Data collection and analysis techniques for evaluating the perceptual qualities of auditory stimuli.   ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP),   2 (4), 505-516.

Börner, Katy. (2002). Visual Interfaces for SemanticInformation Retrieval and Browsing. Groimenko,Vladimir and Chen, Chaomei (Eds.), Visualizing theSemantic Web: XML-based Internet and InformationVisualization, Springer Verlag, Chapter 7, pp. 99-115.

Bradley, J. H., Paul, R., & Seeman, E. (2006). Analyzing the structure of expert knowledge.   Information & Management,   43 (1), 77-91.

Branaghan, R. J., & Hildebrand, E. A. (2011). Brand personality, self - congruity, and preference: A knowledge structures approach.   Journal of Consumer Behaviour,   10 (5), 304-312.

Branaghan, R., & Schvaneveldt, R. (1988). Prediction of paired-associate learning using multidimensional scaling and the pathfinder algorithm. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the   Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Snowbird, Utah, April.

Branaghan, R., McDonald, J., & Schvaneveldt, R. (1991). Identifying high-level UNIX tasks. SIGCHI Bulletin, 23, 73-74.

Branaghan, R., McDonald, J., & Schvaneveldt, R. (1991). Identifying tasks from protocol data. Paper presented at   CHI '91,   New Orleans, May.

Branaghan, R. J.,  Takamura, J., Palmer, M. T., Hildebrand, E. A., & Sevier, D. (2010).  Mapping Information Requirements for Police Patrol and Response to Informational Displays. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 4, 2, 113-128.

Braunschweig, B., & Seaman, C. (2014). Measuring shared understanding in software project teams using pathfinder networks. ESEM '14 Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measrement, Article No. 41.

Breznik, K. (2019). What mission statements reveal in public sector: The case of Slovenian hospitals and Health Centres. International Conference: Thriving on Future Education, Management, Industry, Business Knowledge and Learning, and Society. Piran, Slovenia, 15-17 May 2019.

Brock, M. E., Vert, A., Kligyte, V., Waples, E. P., Sevier, S. T., & Mumford, M. D. (2008). Mental models: An alternative evaluation of a sensemaking approach to ethics instruction.   Science and Engineering Ethics,   14 (3), 449-472.

Bruggmann, A., Fabrikant, S. I., & Purves, R. S. (2020). How Can Geographic Information in Text Documents be Visualized to Support Information Exploration in the Humanities? International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing, 14. 98-118. ( )

Burkolter, Dina, Meyer, Bertolt, Kluge, Annette & Sauer, Jürgen (2010). Assessment of structural knowledge as a training outcome in process control environments.   Human Factors, 52(1), 119-138.

Bushman, B. J. (1996). Individual differences in the extent and development of aggressive cognitive-associative networks.   Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(8), 811-819.

Capelo. C., & Dias, J. F. (2009). A feedback learning and mental models perspective on strategic decision making. Educational Technology Research and Development, 57(5) 629-5644.

Carroll, J. D. (1995). “Minmax length links” of a dissimilarity matrix and minimum spanning trees.  Psychometrika, 60(3), 371-374.

Casas-García, L. M., & Luengo-González, R. (2013). The study of the pupil's cognitive structure: the concept of angle.   European journal of psychology of education,   28 (2), 373-398.

Castriotta, M., Loi, M., Marku, E., & Moi, L. (2021). Disentangling the corporate entrepreneurship construct: conceptualizing through co-words. Scientometrics (2021).

Catarreira, S. M. V., Lopes, V. G., Garcia, L. M. C., & Gonzalez, R. L. (2017). Evaluation of Changes in Cognitive Structures after the Learning Process in Mathematics. International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, 25(2), 17–33..

Chan, A., Salmon, D., Nordin, S., Murphy, C. & Razani, J. (1998). Abnormality of semantic network in patients with Alzheimer's disease: Evidence from verbal, perceptual, and olfactory domains.   Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,   855, 681-685.

Chan, A.S., Butters, N. & Salmon, D.P. (1997). The deterioration of semantic networks in patients with Alzheimer's disease: A cross-sectional study.   Neuropsychologia, 35(3), 241-248.

Chan, A.S., Butters, N., Salmon, D.P., Johnson, S.A., Paulsen, J.S. & Swenson, M.R. (1995). Comparison of the semantic networks in patients with dementia and amnesia. Neuropsychology, 9(2), 177-186.

Chan, A.S., Salmon, D.P., & De La Pena, Jody (2001). Abnormal semantic network for “animals” but not “tools” in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Cortex, 37(2), 197-217.

Chao, G. T., & Moon, H. (2005). The cultural mosaic: A metatheory for understanding the complexity of culture. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1128-1140.

Chen, A., & Ennis, C. D. (1995). Content knowledge transformation: An examination of the relationship between content knowledge and curricula. Teaching and Teacher Education,   11 (4), 389-401.

Chen, C. (1997). Using similarity ratings and the Pathfinder algorithm for evaluating students' cognitive structures in Newtonian mechanics (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International, 57, 7A, 2852.

Chen, C. (1997). Tracking Latent Domain Structures: An Integration of Pathfinder and Latent Semantic Analysis AI & Society, 11, 48-62.

Chen, C. (1998). Generalized similarity analysis and Pathfinder network scaling.   Interacting with Computers, 10, 107-128.

Chen, C. (2005, January). The centrality of pivotal points in the evolution of scientific networks. In   Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Intelligent user interfaces   (pp. 98-105). ACM.

Chen, C. (2013). Mapping scientific frontiers: The quest for knowledge visualization. 2nd Edition (1st Edition in 2002). New York: Springer.

Chen, C., Cribbin, T., Macredie, R. & Morar, S. (2002). Visualizing and tracking the growth of competing paradigms: Two case studies. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (JASIST), 53(8), 678-689.

Chen, C., & Czerwinski, M. (1998). From Latent Semantics to Spatial Hypertext -- An Integrated Approach. Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia..

Chen, C. & Davies, J. (1999). Integrating spatial, semantic, and social structures for knowledge management. Proceedings of the 32 nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui, pp 1-10. Retrieved online at *%20Lecture%20materials/08%20Emotion%20lecture/Emotion_lecture_files/Seq_3.pdf

Chen, C. & Guan, J. (2011). A bibliometric investigation of research performance in emerging nanobiopharmaceuticals. Journal of Informetrics, 5(2), 233-247.

Chen, C. & Kuljis, J. (2003). The rising landscape: A visual exploration of superstring revolutions in physics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 54(5), 435–446.

Chen, C., Kuljis, J., & Paul, R. J. (2001). Visualizing latent domain knowledge.   IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics – Part C: Applications and Reviews. 31(4), 518-529.

Chen, C., McCain, K., White, H., & Lin, X. (2002). Mapping scientometrics.   Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 39(1), 25-34.

Chen, C., Paul, R.J., & O'Keefe, B. (2001). Fitting the jigsaw of citation: Information visualization in domain analysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(4), 315-330.

Chen C., Song M. (2017) Science Mapping Tools and Applications. In: Representing Scientific Knowledge. pp 57-137. Springer.

Chen, C., Song, I-Y., Yuan, X_J., & Zhang, J. (2008). The thematic and citation landscape of Data and Knowledge Engineering (1985–2007). Data & Knowledge Engineering 67(2):234-259  · November 2008.

Chen, C., Thomas, L, Cole, J., & Chenawassin, C. (1999). Representing the semantics of virtual spaces.   IEEE MultiMedia, 6(2): pp. 54-63.

Chen, Chaomei & Morris, Steven (2003). Visualizing evolving networks: Minimum Spanning Trees versus Pathfinder networks.   Proceedings IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization,   2003.October 19-21, 2003, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Chen, Chaomei & Paul, Ray J. (2001). Visualizing a domain's intellectual structure. Computer, 34(3), 65-71.

Chen, Chaomei (1997). Tracking Latent Domain Structures: An integration of Pathfinder and Latent Semantic Analysis.   AI & Society, 11, 48-62.

Chen, Chaomei (1999). Visualizing semantic spaces and author co-citation networks in digital libraries.   Information   Processing and Management, 35, 401-420.

Chen, L. H. (2011). Enhancement of student learning performance using personalized diagnosis and remedial learning system.   Computers & Education, 56 (1), 289-299.

Chen, T. T. (2012). The development and empirical study of a literature review aiding system.   Scientometrics,   92 (1), 105-116.

Chen, W., Allen, C., & Jonassen, D. (2018). Deeper learning in collaborative concept mapping: A mixed methods study of conflict resolution. Computers in Human Behavior,

Choo, Freddie & Curtis, Mary B. (2000). Structural assessment in accounting research. Journal of Accounting Literature, 19, 131-157.

Clariana, R. B. (2010). Multi-decision approaches for eliciting knowledge structure. In   Computer-based diagnostics and systematic analysis of knowledge   (pp. 41-59). Springer US.

Clariana, R.B., Engelmann, T., & Yu, W. (2013). Using centrality of concept maps as a measure of problem space states in computer-supported collaborative problem solving.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 61  (3), 423-442.

Clariana, R.B., Rysavy, M. D., & Taricani, E. M. (2015). Text signals influence team artifacts.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 63 (1), 35-52.

Clariana, R. B., Wallace, P. E., & Godshalk, V. M. (2009). Deriving and measuring group knowledge structure from essays: The effects of anaphoric reference.   Educational Technology Research and Development,   57 (6), 725-737.

Clariana, R.B., Wolfe, M. B., & Kim, K. (2014). The influence of narrative and expository text lesson text structures on knowledge structures: alternate measures of knowledge structure.   Educational Technology Research and Development, 62  (4), 601-616. doi:10.1007/s11423-014-9348-3

Clariana, R.B., & Koul, R. (2008). The effects of learner prior knowledge when creating concept maps from a text passage.   International Journal of Instructional Media,   35 (2), 177-184.   link

Clariana, R.B., & Marker, A. (2007). Generating topic headings during reading of screen-based text facilitates learning of structural knowledge and impairs learning of lower-level knowledge.   Journal of Educational Computing Research, 37 (2), 173-191.

Clariana, R.B., & Taricani, E. M. (in press). The consequences of increasing the number of terms used to score open-ended concept maps.   International Journal of Instructional Media,   37 (2), in press.   link

Clariana, R.B., & Wallace, P. E. (2007). A computer-based approach for deriving and measuring individual and team knowledge structure from essay questions.   Journal of Educational Computing Research, 37 (3), 209-225. 

Clariana, R.B., & Wallace, P. E. (in press). A comparison of pair-wise, list-wise, and clustering approaches for eliciting structural knowledge. International Journal of Instructional Media, 36 (3), in press.   link

Clariana, R.B., Koul, R., & Salehi, R. (2006). The criterion-related validity of a computer-based approach for scoring concept maps.   International Journal of Instructional Media, 33 (3), 317-325.

Clark, M. D., Schwanenflugel, P. J., Everhart, V. S., & Bartini, M. (1996). Theory of mind in deaf adults and the organization of verbs of knowing.   Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education,   1 (3), 179-189.

Clarke III, W. D. (1996). A study of lecture and computer - based teaching of articulatory and acoustic aspects of American English vowels.   The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,   99 (4), 2550-2574.

Cohen, T., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. ( 2010). The trajectory of scientific discovery: Concept co-occurrence and converging semantic distance. Studies in Health Information Technology and Informatics, 160(Pt 1), 661-665.

Cohen, T., Schvaneveldt, R. W., & Widdows, D. (2010). Reflective random indexing and indirect inference: A scalable method for discovery of implicit connections. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 43(2), 240-256 .

Cohen, T., Whitfield, G. K., Schvaneveldt, R. W., Mukund, K., & Rindflesch, T. C. (2010). EpiphaNet: An interactive tool to support biomedical discoveries.   Journal of Biomedical Discovery and Collaboration, 5, 21-49.

Cohen, T., Widdows, D., Schvaneveldt, R. W., & Rindflesch, T. C. (2010). Logical leaps and quantum connectives: Forging paths through predication space. AAAI-Fall 2010 Symposium on Quantum Informatics for Cognitive, Social, and Semantic Processes November, p. 11-13.

Connor, O., Weinger, M. B., Cooke, N. J., & Slagle, J. (2004, September). Using psychological scaling techniques to assess clinical expertise in anesthesiology. In   Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting   (Vol. 48, No. 15, pp. 1746-1750). SAGE Publications.

Cooke, N. J. (1992). Predicting judgment time from measures of psychological proximity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18, 640-653.

Cooke, N. J. (1994). Varieties of knowledge elicitation techniques.   International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 41, 801-849.

Cooke, N. J., Stout, R., & Salas, E. (2001). A knowledge elicitation approach to the measurement of team situation awareness.   New trends in cooperative activities: Understanding system dynamics in complex environments, 114-139.

Cooke, N. M. & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1986). The evolution of cognitive networks with computer programming experience. Paper presented at the workshop on Empirical Studies of Programmers, Washington, D. C., June.

Cooke, N. M. & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1987). The application of empirically derived semantic networks to knowledge engineering. In F. Durso (chair), Knowledge structures: What are they good for? Paper presented at the meetings of the Southwestern Psychological Association, New Orleans, April.

Cooke, N. M., & McDonald, J. E. (1986). A formal methodology for acquiring and representing expert knowledge. Proceedings of the IEEE, 110, 1422-1430.

Cooke, N. M., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1988). Effects of computer programming experience on network representations of abstract programming concepts. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 29, 407-427.

Cooke, N. M., Durso, F. T., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1985). Measures of Memory Organization and Recall. Memorandum in Computer and Cognitive Science, MCCS-85-11, Computing Research Laboratory, New Mexico State University.

Cooke, N. M., Durso, F. T., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1986). Recall and measures of memory organization.   Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition,   12, 538-549.

Cooke, Nancy J., Neville, Kelly J. & Rowe, Anna L. (1996). Procedural network representations of sequential data.   Human-Computer Interaction, 11(1), 29-68.

Cooke, Nancy J., Salas, Eduardo, Cannon-Bowers, Janis A. & Stout, Renée J. (2000). Measuring team knowledge.   Human Factors, 42, 151-173.

Cooke, Stout, Rivera & Salas (1998). Exploring measures of team knowledge. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting,   42( 3), 215-219.

Costagliola, G., De Rosa, M, Fuccella, V., & Perna, S. (2017). Visual languages: A graphical review. Information Visualization. Article first published online: July 9, 2017. DOI:

Creager, J. H., & Furlough, C. S. (2015). Medical mental models: An assessment of condition and treatment knowledge structures with implications for app design. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care, 4(1), 50-54.

Cribbin, T. (2010). Visualising the structure of document search results: A comparison of graph theoretic approaches. Information Visualization, 9(2), 83-97.

Curtis, Mary B. & Davis, Mark A. (2003). Assessing knowledge structure in accounting education: An application of Pathfinder associative networks.   Journal of Accounting Education, 21(3), 185-195.

d'Appolonia, Sylvia T., Charles, Elizabeth S. & Boyd, Gary M. (2004). Acquisition of complex systemic thinking: Mental models of evolution.   Educational Research and Evaluation, 10(4-6), 499-521.

Davis, F. D., & Yi, M. Y. (2004). Improving computer skill training: Behavior modeling, symbolic mental rehearsal, and the role of knowledge structures.   Journal of Applied Psychology,   89(3), 509-523.

Davis, Mark A., Curtis, Mary B. & Tschetter, Jeffrey D. (2003). Evaluating cognitive outcomes: Validity and utility of structural knowledge assessment.   Journal of Business and Psychology, 18(2), 191-206.

Day, Eric A., Arthur Jr., Winfred & Gettman, Dennis (2001). Knowledge structures and the acquisition of a complex skill. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 1022-1033.

Dearholt, D. W. (1998). The cumulative consensus of cognitive agents in scenarios: A framework for evolutionary processes in semantic memory. International Conference on Evolutionary Programming, EP 1998: Evolutionary Programming VII, 1-12.

Dearholt, D. W., Alt, K.J., Halpin, R. F., & Oliver, R. L. (2004). Foundational Aspects of Student‐Controlled Learning: A Paradigm for Design, Development, and Assessment Appropriate for Web‐Based Instruction. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(2), 129-138.

Dearholt, D. W., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1990). Properties of pathfinder networks. In R. Schvaneveldt (Ed. ), Pathfinder associative networks: Studies in knowledge organization. (pp. 1-30). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Dearholt, D. W., Schvaneveldt, R. W., & Durso, F. T. (1985). Properties of Networks Based on Proximities. Memorandum in Computer and Cognitive Science, MCCS-85-14, Computing Research Laboratory, New Mexico State University.

DeFranco, J. F., Neill, C. J., & Clariana, R. B. (2011). A cognitive collaborative model to improve performance in engineering teams—A study of team outcomes and mental model sharing.   Systems Engineering,   14 (3), 267-278.

DiCerbo, K. (2007). Knowledge structures of entering computer networking students and their instructors.   Journal of Information Technology Education: Research,   6 (1), 263-277.

Di Stefano, G., Gambardella, A., & Verona, G. (2012). Technology push and demand pull perspectives in innovation studies: Current findings and future research directions.   Research Policy,   41 (8), 1283-1295.

Dozortsev, V., & Mironova, A. (2019). Operators' structural knowledge evaluation as a feedback in computer-based training in context of the novel "Anna Karenina."  Industrial Simulation Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, pp 26-31.

Dozortsev, V., Nazin, V., Oboznov, A., & Mironova, A. (2017). Structural knowledge as an evaluation instrument of trainees progress in learning. 11th IEEE International Conference "Application of Information and Communication Technologies" (AICT2017), At Moscow, Volume: 2, pp.275-279.

Durso, F. T., Schvaneveldt, R. W., & Goldsmith, T. E. (1983). Empirical networks of natural categories. Paper presented at the meetings of the Southwestern Psychological Association, San Antonio, April.

Durso, F.T., Rea, C.B. & Dayton, T. (1994). Graph-theoretic confirmation of restructuring during insight. Psychological Science, 5(2), 94-98.

Edwards, R. L. (2009). Exploring Novice Engineers' Mental Models of Collaboration and Engineering Design. A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment  of the Requirements for the Degree of  MASTER of ARTS, University of Victoria.

Edwards, B. D., Day, E. A., Arthur Jr, W., & Bell, S. T. (2006). Relationships among team ability composition, team mental models, and team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology,   91 (3), 727.

Engerman, J. A., Rusek, M. C., & Clariana, R. (2014). Excel spreadsheets for algebra: improving mental modeling for problem solving.  Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 33 (4), 409-427.

English, D., & Branaghan, R. J. (2012). An empirically derived taxonomy of pilot violation behavior. Safety Science,   50 (2), 199-209.

Evans, A. Williams, Jentsch, Florian, Hitt II, James M., Bowers, Clint & Salas, Eduardo (2001). Mental model assessments: Is there convergence among different methods? Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 45 th Annual Meeting, pp 293-296.

Fabricius, W. V., Nagoshi, C. T., & Mackinnon, D. P. (1997). Concepts of drugs: differences in conceptual structure across groups with different levels of drug experience.   Addiction,   92 (7), 847-858.

Fesel, S.S., Segers, E., Clariana, R.B., & Verhoeven, L. (2015). Quality of children's knowledge representations in digital text comprehension: Evidence from Pathfinder networks.  Computers in Human Behavior, 48 , 135-146.

Fowler R. H., Fowler, W. A. L., & Williams, J. L. (1996). 3D Visualization of WWW Semantic Content for Browsing and Query Formulation. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 20(2). DOI 10.1006/jnca.1997.0042. Conference: WebNet 96 - World Conference of the Web Society.

Freeze, R. D., & Bristow, S. E. (2018). ERP Knowledge: Enhancing Program Growth for Workforce Impact. Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 4339-4347.

Furlough, C. S., & Gillan, D. (2018). Mental models: Structural differences and the role of experience. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making. DOI 10.1177/1555343418773236

Gallo, M. (2016). Text summarization by machine learning. Bachelor's Thesis, Masark University, Faculty of Informatics.

Gaultieri, J., Fowlkes, J., & Ricci, K. E. (1996). Measuring individual and team knowledge structures for use in training. Training Research Journal, 2, 117-141.

Geer, J. H. (1996). Gender Differences in the Organization of Sexual Information.   Archives of Sexual Behavior,   25(1), 91-107.

Geer, J. H., & Manguno-Mire, G. (1996). Gender differences in cognitive processes in sexuality. Annual Review of Sex Research, 7, 211-245

Geske, Jenenne A. (2001). "The structure of introductory statistics knowledge: An investigation exploring students' and experts' cognitive organization using multidimensional scaling and pathfinder analyses" (January 1, 2001).   ETD collection for University of Nebraska - Lincoln.   Paper AAI3009717.

Giamellaro, M. (2012). Deep immersion academic learning (DIAL): An analysis of science learning in context (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Colorado Denver.

Giamellaro, M. (2013a). Student use of facilitated versus peripheral learning opportunities to develop conceptual science knowledge In contextualized, outdoor settings. Presented at the Conference of the European Science Education Research Association, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Giamellaro, M. (2013b). The Role of the Physical Environment in Contextualizing Science Learning. Presented at the NARST Annual International Conference, Rio Grande, PR.

Giamellaro, M. (2014a). Primary Contextualization of Science Learning through Immersion in Content-Rich Settings. International Journal of Science Education , 36 (17), 2848–2871.

Giamellaro, M. (2014b). Science learning and levels of contextualization. Presented at the National Association for Research in Science Teaching Annual International Conference, Pittsburgh, PA.

Gillan, D. J., & Cooke, N. J. (2001). Using Pathfinder networks to analyze procedural knowledge in interactions with advanced technology.   Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research, 1, 125-161.

Gillan, D. J., Breedin, S. D., & Cooke, N. M. (1992). Network and multidimensional representations of the declarative knowledge of human-computer interface design experts. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 36, 587-615.

Gilman, E. M., & Gillan, D. J. (2001, October). Metaphors as Tools for Restructuring Knowledge: Metaphor-Based Learning about Computer Systems. In   Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 45, No. 6, pp. 612-616). SAGE Publications.

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Links to Related Sites

Clariana, R. B. (2003). KU-Mapper software allows participants to complete three activites, a traditional Pathfinder rating task, an abbreviated rating task, and a sorting task. Then the software outputs proximity files (prx) that can be analyzed by PCKNOT. KU-Mapper is available online at:

Clariana, R. B. (2004). ALA-Reader software translates written text directly into proximity files (prx) that can be analyzed by PCKNOT. ALA-Reader is available online at: